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电子涡轮增压器助推汽车电压新标准

自从去年奥迪SQ7装备了双增压系统,增加了电子涡轮增压,带动了某宝上千元级甚至百元级的所谓电子涡轮增压器也火了,各种评测相继推出。然并卵,这种低价电子涡轮增压器反而造成发动机在高转速时进气困难的问题。正牌的电子涡轮增压应该是什么样的呢?涡轮增压简称TURBO,它是采用专门的压气机将气体在进入气缸前预先进行压缩,提高进入气缸的气体密度,减小气体的体积,这样,在单位体积里,气体的质量就大大增加了,进气量即可满足燃料的燃烧需要,从而达到提高发动机功率及扭矩的目的。一般而言,加装涡轮增压器后的发动机的功率及扭矩要增大2 0 % ~ 3 0 % 。从另一方面讲涡轮增压能够提高汽车的燃油经济性。

由于电动涡轮增压固有的涡轮迟滞效应,涡轮要等发动机达到一定转速时(大概2000rpm)才能启动工作。电子涡轮增压的介入使得发动机的控制变得更加自由。奥迪SQ7是世界上第一台使用电子涡轮增压的量产汽车,除了两个传统涡轮外,还有一个电动涡轮。奥迪称之为EPC(electrically powered compressor)。发动机涡轮比较虚的时候,电动涡轮开始工作,给发动机打鸡血。这个电动涡轮由一个小型电机驱动,奥迪为了驱动它还专为开发了一套48V的汽车电源。这个小电机能够在250毫秒内转起来,如果硬要说SQ7有涡轮迟滞,那么这个时间是250毫秒,也就是你眨一次眼睛的时间。此后,转速能够一路飙升至70000转/分钟,提供的增压值能够供4台车使用。

电子涡轮增压的背后是欧系厂商的48V升级大局

电子涡轮增压的电机是48V电压供电,而并非是我们常规的12V电压。为什么这个「48V」很重要?因为它背后代表的是欧系新能源发展战略的根本。

2011年,奥迪、宝马、戴姆勒、保时捷和大众五大品牌联合发布了48V电压规范,开始研发车载电压提升至48V的汽车电气化。随后,很多欧洲车企都先后进行了新标准的开发。

为什么要将整车电压提升到48V?欧洲厂商给出的理由是节能,以及安全方面的考虑。不过在众人看来,这背后更为重要的原因,是为了抗衡日系的混合动力技术。

48V电压是安全电压的最高限值,48V电源带来的成本上升也要比日系混合动力技术要低不少,欧洲厂商寄希望于用48V的这些优势,结合其自身在传统内燃机的技术储备,从而实现动力与节能的双重提升,与日系的混合动力技术抗衡并最终实现向纯电动化的过渡。

实际上,欧洲五大厂商提出48V电压标准之后,包括法雷奥、博世、德尔福、大陆等一票国际零部件供应商就开始了紧锣密鼓的相关配件的开发,电子涡轮增压就是其中之一。随后跟上的还会有电子空调——不启动发动机就能开启空调、电驱动VVT——不依靠凸轮轴推动进排气门可变等一系列电气化的新技术普及。

艾德克斯IT6500C系列电源具备专业的汽车电子的环境测试波形,具有快速可调的电压、电流、功率的上升、下降功能,内置有多种汽车电子电压测试波形,其中LV124就是欧洲五大厂商联合制定的针对3.5吨以下汽车的测试标准。LV148则是针对汽车上48V电子系统的测试标准,两种测试标准具有相似的测试波形标准。IT6500C内置了LV124中的八种波形,面板即可调用,同时,IT6500C具备强大的双重循环list编程功能,可以编辑诸如正弦波等复杂波形。

IT6522C (80V/ 120A/ 3000W)

汽车未来的发展趋势是四化:智能化、电气化、轻量化以及自动化。电子涡轮增压,就是汽车发展电气化的一种。欧洲厂商的举动其实很值得中国车企思考:未来我们的新能源战略路径该如何选择?在纯电动化到来之前,若传统内燃机满足不了油耗和排放要求,我们采用怎样的过渡技术?随着欧洲制定了燃油车的倒计时,中国政府也在考虑纯燃油车的终点。

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